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When Were Wheelchairs Invented? (A Mobility History Lesson)

When Were Wheelchairs Invented? (A Mobility History Lesson)

Wheelchairs, as aids for individuals with mobility challenges, have evolved significantly over time but the first wheelchair ever made can be traced back centuries. When were wheelchairs invented? The earliest records of wheeled furniture date back to ancient Chinese art from the 5th century BCE, which depicts children using wheeled toys. However, the first known image of an actual wheelchair designed for disability comes from a 6th-century engraving.

It was not until the 16th century that wheelchairs began to see advancements resembling modern designs. An early prototype known as an "invalid's chair" was in existence in 1595, created for King Philip II of Spain. This chair featured small wheels and was designed for function rather than mobility, as it was not self-propelling. It marked the beginning of a series of design changes that aimed to improve the independence and quality of life for users.


When did wheelchairs get invented? Significant developments in wheelchair design occurred in the 18th and 19th centuries. Notable improvements included the introduction of the Bath chair in the 18th century and the self-propelling wheelchair with large rear wheels in the 19th century. These improvements in wheelchair technology reflect a continual dedication to enhancing mobility for people with disabilities.

Historical Origins of Wheelchairs

Wheelchairs have evolved significantly since their inception, providing mobility solutions for people with disabilities. The history of wheelchairs is marked by ingenuity and the human drive to improve quality of life through assistive technology.

First Known Wheelchair Designs

The first recognized wheelchair design dates back to the 6th century, as depicted in a Chinese engraving. However, the first practical wheelchair was constructed in 1595 specifically for Philip II of Spain. This early wheelchair was more of a mobile chair, designed purely to transport the king from one place to another and was not self-propelled. Early wheelchairs resembled chairs mounted on wheels, and they were primarily a symbol of status and wealth rather than an assistive device.

Development Through the Centuries

Century Developments
17th Innovations included the addition of leg rests and the capability to be self-propelled using a crank mechanism.
18th The Bath chair, one of the first wheelchairs designed for both indoor and outdoor use, was introduced.
19th Advances saw the introduction of the pushrim for self-propulsion, increasing independence for users.

The design and functionality of wheelchairs have undergone tremendous transformation. In the 18th century, the Bath chair came into existence, enabling more flexibility in terms of indoor and outdoor mobility. The 19th century was particularly significant, marking the advancement in personal mobility, as wheelchairs were designed to be powered by the users themselves, using pushrims on the wheels—setting a standard for the basic wheelchair design that would carry into the future.


Inventors and Innovations

The development of wheelchairs has been marked by the contributions of key figures and significant technological strides that have greatly improved mobility for individuals with disabilities.

Key Figures in Wheelchair Invention: Who Invented Wheelchairs

Stephen Farffler (1633–1689), a paraplegic watchmaker, is often credited with the invention of the first self-propelling chair on wheels in the mid-17th century. Utilizing a system of cranks and cogwheels, Farffler’s creation laid the groundwork for modern wheelchair design.

In the 18th century, John Dawson of Bath, England, designed the Bath wheelchair. His design became the blueprint for subsequent chairs and was widely used until the 20th century. Dawson's innovation made wheelchairs more available to the general public.

Technological Advances in Wheelchair Design

As materials and engineering evolved, wheelchair design advanced significantly. In the 20th century, lightweight metals such as aluminum were introduced, which made wheelchairs lighter and more maneuverable.

Harry Jennings and Herbert Everest are pivotal in the 20th century for creating the first folding, tubular steel wheelchair in 1933. Their company, Everest & Jennings, catalyzed the mass-production of wheelchairs, making them more accessible to those in need.

Milestone Year Innovation
Mid-17th Century Farffler's self-propelling wheelchair
18th Century Dawson's Bath wheelchair
1933 Everest & Jennings' folding steel wheelchair

Modern Wheelchair Design

Modern wheelchair design has evolved significantly since the invention of wheelchairs in the early 6th century. Today, wheelchairs are highly advanced in terms of functionality and customization options to meet diverse user needs.


Transition to Contemporary Models

The transition to contemporary wheelchair models began markedly in the 20th century, with a shift towards more user-focused designs. Wheelchairs transformed from the heavy, wooden, non-collapsible models to lighter, adjustable ones made from materials like aluminum and titanium. The introduction of the folding X-frame in 1932 by Herbert Everest and Harry Jennings was a pivotal moment in wheelchair innovation. Their design has become a standard, influencing the portability and convenience of modern wheelchairs.

Functionality and Customization

Functionality has seen substantial improvement, with emphasis on:

  • Ergonomics: Contoured seats and backrests enhance comfort.
  • Mobility: Lightweight alloys increase maneuverability.
  • Durability: Use of robust materials to extend lifespan.
  • Maintenance: Designs incorporate ease of repair.

Customization allows personalization according to individual needs:

  • Wheel sizes and types: to navigate different terrains.
  • Seat height and depth: tailored to the user's body.
  • Add-ons: including oxygen holders, adjustable footrests, and tilt functionality.
  • High-tech features: like motorized controls for users with limited mobility.

Wheelchair Accessibility and Society

The progression of wheelchair accessibility standards and their impact on the personal mobility and independence of wheelchair users are pivotal aspects of how society has evolved to become more inclusive.

Evolution of Accessibility Standards

Accessibility standards for wheelchairs have significantly evolved since the introduction of the first mobility aids. In the United States, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) became law in 1990, mandating accessible public spaces, transportation, and buildings. Notable benchmarks in accessibility standards include the following:

  • 1991: ADA Standards for Accessible Design were published, detailing the requirements for various facilities.
  • 2010: Updates to accessibility standards introduced requirements for recreational facilities and outdoor sites.

These standards have been adopted and adapted globally, influencing policies like the UK's Equality Act 2010 and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD).

Impact on Mobility and Independence

The implementation of wheelchair accessibility standards has had a profound impact on individuals' mobility and independence. They can now access:


  • Public buses and trains with dedicated wheelchair spaces.
  • Lowered subway platforms for level boarding.


Public Spaces:

  • Ramps and sloped entries in place of steps.
  • Automatic doors and accessible restrooms in buildings.

Assistive Technologies:

  • Wheelchair lifts and stair lifts.
  • Voice-activated systems and adjustable counters.

These enhancements afford wheelchair users the ability to navigate environments with greater ease, promoting autonomy and participation in community life.


The evolution of wheelchairs from rudimentary wheeled furniture to sophisticated, customized mobility devices reflects humanity's ongoing commitment to inclusivity and the empowerment of individuals with disabilities. As we have seen, each century has brought about critical innovations, from the self-propelling designs of the 17th century to the lightweight, foldable models of the 20th century, culminating in today's advanced wheelchairs that offer unparalleled levels of comfort, functionality, and independence.

The development of wheelchair technology goes hand in hand with the progression of societal standards for accessibility, ensuring that public spaces and services accommodate the needs of all individuals. The journey of the wheelchair is not just a narrative of technological advancement but a testament to the resilience and creativity of the human spirit in its quest to overcome barriers and create a more inclusive world. As we continue to innovate and advocate for universal design, the future promises even greater integration and opportunities for people with mobility challenges to lead full, active lives.

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